Light AFV guns and the WCSP and FRES Scout projects

The cannon mounted in the turrets of LAFVs (Light Armoured Fighting Vehicles) have two principal uses: one is to engage their equivalents, for which they need guns powerful enough to penetrate their armour when using AP ammunition, while the other is to engage softer targets; unarmoured vehicles, buildings and other cover, and troops. 

A gun-armour race has been slowly developing among LAFVs. The previously common 20mm calibre, particularly the 20x139 used in the Rheinmetall Rh 202 among others, has mainly been superseded for this purpose by the 25x137 NATO round, principally in the ATK M242 Bushmaster Chain Gun, but the 30mm calibre is now standard for almost all new developments. The British 30mm Rarden L21A2 gun (30x170) has of course been in service for decades, as have the Russian BMP 30mm guns (30x165), and these have more recently been joined in service by the Mauser MK 30 and the ATK Bushmaster II (since replaced in production by the marinised MK44 version developed for the USMC's EFV), both in 30x173 calibre. One oddity is the 1950s Soviet 30x210B cartridge, developed for the NN-30 naval gun, which was adopted by Yugoslavia in the 1980s for the Zastava M86 (single ammo feed) and M89 (double feed) AFV guns; this has been revived for new Serbian LAFV developments.

M2A2 Bradley with 25mm M242 Bushmaster
Moving up in power, the 35x228 Oerlikon round as used in the Oerlikon KDE has been in service for some years in the Japanese Type 89 MICV. The Netherlands and Denmark have also chosen this round for their new CV9035 MICV, only this time in ATK's Bushmaster III. The 40x365R Bofors L70 has been in Swedish service for some years in the CV9040, and the round is also used by the new Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle. In the late 1970s, Germany considered the idea of a Marder MICV armed with a version of the Bofors 57mm in 57x438R calibre, but this went nowhere.   
 A few years later Otobreda of Italy and IMI of Israel co-developed the self-loading 60mm HVMS 60 (High-Velocity Medium-Support) around new 60x410R ammunition. After a while, the two firms parted company and continued separate developments of the gun and ammunition. The only sale achieved so far is by IMI to Chile, to rearm some old tanks (apparently with a manually-loaded version of the gun). 

The largest conventional cannon currently being promoted is the new Russian AU-220 turret containing a version of the old 57mm S-60 AA gun in 57x347SR calibre. This is initially intended for rearming the PT-76 light amphibious tank but is said to be suitable for other LAFVs. 

For attacking other LAFVs the ammunition of choice has developed from the APHC (armour piercing hard core) through APDS, and is now APFSDS (Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilised Discarding-Sabot), effectively a miniature version of the principal Main Battle Tank AP ammunition. The penetrators are almost universally of tungsten alloy, although the USA fields the 25mm M919 DU round; the enhanced penetration which this provides helps to compensate for the relatively low power of the cartridge. 

In current service, the AP ammunition is supplemented by point-detonating fuzed HE for use against soft targets. However, the main focus for development in LAFV ammunition at the moment is airburst HE, using a time fuze.

Several drivers are pushing up the gun calibre of new LAFVs. One of them is that the armour protection of such vehicles is improving, as can clearly be seen as a result of operations in Iraq. The weight of existing LAFVs has been steadily increasing, mainly to add protection: over their lifetime, the M2 Bradley has increased from 23 to 30 tonnes, the Warrior from 25 to 32, the CV90 from 21 (prototype) to 35, the German Marder from 27.5 to 37.5, while the new German Puma weighs in at a massive 43 tonnes. This will require more powerful AP ammunition to achieve reliable penetration in the future. 

The need to blow holes in buildings being used as cover also favours larger HE shells. But perhaps even more important is the current interest in airburst HE/fragmentation for attacking enemy forces hiding behind walls and other cover. This is known as HEAB (High Explosive Air Burst) or ABM (Air-Burst Munition). First in the field was a modified version of Oerlikon's AHEAD time-fuzed shrapnel ammo, available in 35mm and 30mm calibre and now redesignated KETF (kinetic energy time fuzed). 
The 35mm KETF is available in a special anti-personnel loading containing 341 cylindrical tungsten sub-projectiles each weighing 1.5g (compared with 152 at 3.3g for the AA version). However, this only throws the fragments forwards, which may miss soldiers behind cover. Accordingly, there is more interest in HE/fragmentation shells which can be designed to project fragments downwards and even backwards, as well as forwards. If one of these shells, with a spherical fragmentation pattern, is detonated above a target, then only a small minority of the fragments will strike the targets. In these circumstances, shells big enough to produce a large quantity of fragments are clearly advantageous (especially as the time-fuze systems are very expensive, so maximising the "bang for the buck" is important). 

As a result of these issues, the minimum calibre being considered for most new LAFV developments is 30mm. Even that may be considered marginal in the long run, hence the current interest in several armies in 35mm and 40mm armament. This provides a measure of future-proofing; a wise precaution given that once a decision about a new gun calibre is made, it tends to be in service for several decades. It is significant that the Dutch study which led to the decision to select the 35mm calibre concluded that 30mm APFSDS would be inadequate to deal satisfactorily with the latest up-armoured versions of the Russian BMP-3. However, there are practical limitations on gun and ammunition size, especially in vehicles intended to carry troops as well as a gun. Perhaps of most significance is that the fact that many programmes will be to fit – or refit – new armament to existing vehicles, in which case the space available for the turret (and especially the diameter of the turret ring) can impose a significant limitation on the size of the gun and its ammunition feed.
There is therefore a trend to try to squeeze more performance out of existing guns by increasing their calibre. An example of that is the development of the 40mm ‘Super 40’, which is basically a necked-out version of the 30x173 case retaining the same rim diameter and overall length as the 30mm cartridge. It is therefore in principle a straightforward task to modify the externally-powered 30mm MK44 gun to take the Super 40 ammunition; it just needs a new barrel and some modifications to the feed unit. A few years ago, General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems (GD-OTS) were looking at different case lengths for the HE (164mm) and APFSDS (218mm) versions of the Super 40, but more recently have settled on a compromise case length of 180mm for both. At the same time the calibre has been reduced to 39mm to provide more case taper, but it is still referred to as a 40mm round. An earlier, similar, exercise was to neck out the 35x228 Oerlikon case to create the 50x330 ‘Supershot’. However, the Super 40 and the 50mm Supershot have not so far proceeded beyond the development stage: work on the latter has been stopped entirely, and while development of the Super 40 the former had been proceeding at a low level, GD-OTS seem to have recently accelerated work.
There is one Western programme which offers an alternative approach to the LAFV armament problem of providing high performance within compact dimensions: the Franco-British 40mm CTAS (Cased Telescoped Armament System) developed by CTA International, a joint project between Nexter (formerly GIAT) and British Aerospace. This uses very short, telescoped ammunition just 255mm long overall (the projectiles are entirely enclosed within the case) with a very high performance, approximately equal to that of the 40mm Bofors and the 50mm Supershot (all three cases having similar propellant capacities). The rim diameter of the CTAS round is the same as that of the Bofors 40mm case, but the Bofors round is twice as long. The gun installation is also designed to minimise turret intrusion: the ammunition is fed in sideways (pushing out the fired case as it does so) then the chamber rotated in line with the barrel to fire. The feed is on the axis of the trunnions, so does not move as the gun is elevated. There are clearly some significant advantages here, particularly in minimising the risk of failures to feed and in releasing a lot space in the turret (which looks quite empty compared with a conventional gun installation), although its competitors point out that the trunnion loading means that the gun is out of balance requiring more power for the elevation system, and argue that barrel wear is higher and the ammunition more expensive. However, the higher cost of larger calibre ammunition, plus the smaller quantity which can be carried, is counteracted by the fact that fewer of them would need to be fired to achieve the same effect.
The 40 CTAS HE projectiles weigh 1kg, about 1.5x more than the Super 40 and 2.5x more than the 30mm HEAB: muzzle velocities are similar at around 1,000 m/s. The APFSDS projectiles for the two 40mm rounds are launched at about 1,500 m/s, but again the 40 CTAS is heavier, thereby providing significantly more muzzle energy than the Super 40 (around 500,000 joules compared with c.340,000). However, the Super 40, at 44mm diameter, is significantly slimmer than the 65mm diameter 40 CTAS round, so a lot more ammo can be carried in the same volume.
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter tungsten directory site .

Tungsten Alloy IPad Radiation Protection

The topic of electromagnetic radiation from iPad, iPhone, mobile phones, laptops, and other electronic devices has created a lot of controversy in the market. Some debate that it’s bad for you, some say that it doesn’t affect you at all, while some even say that it’s good for you.
Regardless of the stance on the topic, here are radiation protective designs for your inspiration and your gadgets. No guarantees on how effective these may be, you can do the research, but it provides good insight on the form of products created with specific functionality in mind.
As power generation demands continue to increase and evolve, you need materials that will perform at the highest level in some of the harshest conditions.  At GTP, we develop and manufacture materials that will extend the life of your turbines and other equipment, protect you from harmful radiation and semi-finished parts such as tungsten heavy alloy blanks and weights.  We are also starting an exciting new venture into the solid oxide fuel cell market with the manufacture of inter-connect plates and LSM powder.
Tungsten alloy radiation shielding is designed for the iPhone, iPad and other Smartphone, which has a 3.5MM audio output. The radiation protected telephone handset, convenient and practical.
-Easy to use and Easy to hold when you making phone calls. It can protect the radiation during calling.
-Elegant, simple design, so you can use anytime, anywhere.
-Comes with hang up buttons, simple operation and convenient.
-Also could use for iPad Skype.
The tungsten alloy radiation attenuating pad and it is a pad designed with a special material that boasts nearly 100% radiation blocking. It is used by placing it under your laptop, where most of the electromagnetic fields are emitted and comes in various sizes.
Why use tungsten alloy radiation shielding?
Compared to traditional radiation shielding materials such as lead and boron carbide, tungsten alloys provide excellent density with small capacity. At the same weights high density alloy can provide the same energy absorption as lead using 1/3 less material.
When the weight is certain, more density, more denser, and the thckness would be thinner. Tungsten alloy material could be made with thinner thickness but high absorption of radiation in high density. That is why tungsten alloy material is suitable for raidation shielding. 
The tungsten directory website you want to know knowledge!


History of Tungsten,Tungsten History

Tungsten, like all the elements having a higher atomic number than iron (Z>26), cannot be formed by nuclear fusion processes in stars, as is the case for those elements with a lower atomic number, but originates only by neutron or proton absorption of already existing bigger nuclei.  These capture processes with extremely high fluxes of neutrons and protons occur exclusively in massive stars (>8 times the solar mass) during the end of their life cycle.  Massive stars end in a supernova explosion whereby certain amounts of their mass are distributed to the surrounding space, including also the tungsten atoms formed.

The name Wolfram is closely related to today’s important tungsten mineral wolframite.  In the Middle Ages (16th century) tin miners in the Saxony-Bohemian Erzgebirge in Germany reported about a mineral which often accompanied tin ore (tinstone).  From experience, it was known that the presence of this mineral reduced the tin yield during smelting.  Foam appeared on the surface of the tin melt and a heavy deposit formed in the smelting stove, which retained the valuable tin.  "It tears away the tin and devours it like a wolf devours a sheep", a contemporary wrote in the symbolic language of those times.  The miners gave this annoying ore German nicknames like "wolffram", "wolform", "wolfrumb" and "wolffshar" (because of its black colour and hairy appearance).  Georgius Agricola was the first to report about this new fossil (Spuma Lupi) in his book “De Natura Fossilium”, published in 1546.
The name Tungsten came from the other important tungsten ore, which is now called scheelite.  In 1750, this heavy mineral was discovered in the Bispberg´s iron mine in the Swedish province Dalecarlia.  The first person who mentioned the mineral was Axel Frederik Cronstedt in 1757, who called it Tungsten {composed of the two Swedish words tung (heavy) and sten (stone)} due to its density close to 6.

In 1781, the outstanding Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele published the results of his experiments on the mineral tungsten in Kongl.  Vetenskaps- Academiens Nya Handlingar, with the title: “The Constituents of Tungsten”.  In this work he demonstrated that the mineral contains lime and a still unknown acid, which he called tungstic acid.  Torbern Bergman, professor in Uppsala, suggested preparing the corresponding metal by charcoal reduction of the obtained acid.

In 1781/1782, the Spanish nobleman, Juan José de D´Elhuyar studied metallurgical chemistry with Prof Bergman and gathered information about the work on the mineral tungsten.  Back to Spain in 1783, Juan José analyzed a wolfram species from a tin mine in Zinnwald/Saxony, and showed it to be an iron and manganese salt of a new acid.  He also concluded that wolfram contained the same acid as Scheele had gained from tungsten.  He then reduced the oxide to the new metal by heating it with charcoal, as had been recommended by his teacher Bergman.

His discovery, jointly with his brother Fausto Jermin, was published in 1783 by the Royal Society of Friends of the Country in the City of Victoria (“Analysis quimico del volfram, y examen de un Nuevo metal, que entra en su composition por D Juan Joséf y Don Fausto de Luyart de la Real Sociedad Bascongada”).  The new metal was named VOLFRAM after the mineral used for analysis.
Thereafter, an increasing number of scientists explored the new chemical element and its compounds.  However, the price for the metal was still very high and the time was not yet ripe for promising applications.

In 1847, a patent was granted to the engineer Robert Oxland.  This included the preparation of sodium tungstate, formation of tungstic acid, and the reduction to the metallic form by oil, tar or charcoal.  The work constituted an important step in modern tungsten chemistry, and opened the way to industrialisation.
First, tungsten-containing steels were patented in 1858, leading to the first self-hardening steels in 1868.  High speed steels with tungsten additions up to 20% were first exhibited at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900, and revolutionized engineering practice in the early 20th century.  Such steels (Taylor- and White) are still used today in practically every machine shop of the world.

The first tungsten light bulbs were patented in 1904, and rapidly replaced the less efficient carbon filament lamps on the lighting market.  Since then, tungsten filaments have illuminated the world and have revolutionized artificial lighting in general.
To produce drawing dies with diamond-like hardness but improved toughness was the driving force for the development of cemented carbides in the 1920s. At this time, no one, even the most optimistic, could imagine the enormous breakthrough for this material in the tooling industry.  After WW2, a huge market opened in the growing economies and cemented carbides contributed as tool materials and construction parts for their industrial development.

In 1944, K C Li, President of Wah Chang Corporation in the US, published a picture in the Engineering & Mining Journal entitled: “40 Years Growth of the Tungsten Tree (1904 – 1944)” illustrating the fast development of the various tungsten applications in the field of metallurgy and chemistry.

To compare the evolution of a technology with the growth of a tree was a unique idea which has since been developed and expanded from 1850.  This 150 years’ time span reveals a fascinating picture of scientific and technological evolution.
The tree has grown to reach today a peculiar form, which is dominated by an increasingly thick bole (cemented carbides) with two main branches (steel and mill products). The chemicals branch seems somehow atrophied but still has a large number of small leaves.  Due to the unique properties of tungsten, it can be assumed that in future a steady further growth will occur, given the appropriate market opportunities.
For the full story on the History of Wolfram and Tungsten, click to read the article in Newsletters June and December 2005.  Further information is given in the Tungsten Brochure (2009).

The Trewhiddle Tungsten Bloom
The ITIA does not often receive calls from TV producers but there was excitement over the discovery of a lump of metal found in the West of England, after an article was published in “Materials World” in February 2004.

There was speculation that this lump was tungsten metal, pre-dating its presumed discovery in 1783, and a further twist to the story suggests the involvement of that scientist, man of letters, bankrupt and thief, Rudolph Erich Raspe (1737-1794), the author of “The Travels of Baron Munchausen”.


Tungsten Necklace

Our extensive collection of tungsten necklace features a variety of necklace styles and sizes for men and women.
Tungsten carbide can be manufactured as tungsten necklace,tungsten carbide necklace. Tungsten carbide necklace is fabulous fashion accessories, and some are quite fun, too. 

Tungsten necklace,tungsten carbide necklace is high quality decoration.Tungsten necklace, tungsten carbide necklace is the best and charming gift for your friends or lovers.

 If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter the tungsten directory site.

Tungsten Copper Application

Tungsten copper alloy may be used as an electrical contact material. In the most severe applications associated with power generation and transmission the switch may be totally immersed in oil. In these cases there is no advantage in using the tarnish resistant silver-based materials, as oxidation is prevented by the exclusion of air. Copper tungsten contacts are widely used in these cases, the selection of the grade used being dependent on the relative importance of conductivity and arc resistance.

Tungsten copper alloy is used widely in such industries as engine, electrical power, electron, metallurgy, spaceflight and aviation. Using CIP formation, sintered tungsten skeleton and infiltrating copper (silver) technology, large size and special shape products of tungsten copper composites with 6-90 percent of copper are produced, such as electric contacts, electrode, refractory parts, heat sinks and parts of rocket, We can also produce tungsten copper alloy sheet material, tubing, plate and other small products by mould pressing, extrusion pressing and MIM.

Tungsten copper alloys are used where the combination of high heat resistance, high electrical and/or thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion are needed. Some of the applications are in electric resistance welding, as electrical contacts, and as heat sinks. As contact material the alloy is resistant to erosion by electric arc. WCu alloys are also used in electrodes for electrical discharge machining and electrochemical machining.

Tungsten copper alloys used for EDM and ECM applications are far superior when fine surface finishes, deep narrow slots or ribs and small precise holes are required. Tungsten alloys are preferred when matching extremely detailed sections. In the ECM process, Copper-Tungsten withstands erosive effects of short circuit malfunctions far better than other materials.
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter the tungsten directory website. 

Tungsten Copper for Heat Sinks

Tungsten-Copper high performance composites are fabricated from carefully controlled porous tungsten that is vacuum infiltrated with molten copper. This results in a W/Cu composite that has high conductivity and a matched low thermal expansion for heat sinks. 

It is a composite of tungsten and copper. By controlling the content of tungsten, we can design its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), matching that of the materials, such as Ceramics (Al2O3, BeO), Semiconductors (Si), Kovar, etc. 

Advantages: High thermal conductivity, Excellent hermeticity, Excellent size control, surface finish and flatness, Semi-finished or finished (Ni/Au plated) products available.

Molybdenum Copper heat sink is a composite made from Mo and Cu, Similar to W-Cu, CTE of Mo-Cu can also be tailored by adjusting the composition. But Mo Cu is much lighter than W-Cu, so that it is more suitable for aeronautic and astronautic applications. 

Advantages:  High thermal conductivity due to no sintering additives was used;
Excellent hermeticity;
Relatively small density
Stampable sheets available (Mo content not more than 75wt%)
Semi-finished or finished (Ni/Au plated) parts available.
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter the tungsten directory website.


Tungsten Alloy in Computer

The properties of tungsten alloy
As is known to all, tungsten alloy has so many advantages, such as high density, small volume, excellent hardness, superior wearing resistance, high ultimate tensile strength, high ductility, high temperature resistance, high radiation adsorption capability, etc. so most of the components in computers are used tungsten alloy as the material.

The advantages of tungsten alloy used in computer
Tungsten alloy in computer used the property of high radiation of the tungsten alloy. The computers are widely used in our lives, we can not survive without computers. The radiation from the computers is very harmful to our body. Tungsten alloys is a best choices for radiation shielding applications, especially in computers. Compared to traditional radiation shielding materials, tungsten alloys radiation shield provide excellent value.

A high-density alloy can provide the same energy absorption as lead using 1/3 less material. People are taking advantage of tungsten alloy’s reliable radiation shielding properties to make screen of the computers, in this way, our eyes can not be so tired when using computers for a long time and it is also good to our health. Tungsten alloy radiation shield give you best protection from the harmful radiation. Meet to the AMS 21014 and ASTM B777 material standard, we can offer tungsten alloy radiation shields with finished machining by CNC according to clients drawings. Compared to traditional radiation shielding materials such as lead and boron carbide, tungsten alloys provide excellent density with small capacity. Tungsten alloy material could be made with thinner thickness but high absorption of radiation in high density. That is why most manufactures choose tungsten alloy as the material for computers.

High temperature resistance is another advantage to use tungsten alloy in computer. After a long time using of computer, it produce a lot of heat, which is result in the slow of speed, tungsten alloy can resistant the problems.
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter tungsten directory site.


Armor Piercing History

First World War Era

Shot and shell used prior to and during World War I were generally cast from special chromium (stainless) steel that was melted in pots. They were forged into shape afterward and then thoroughly annealed, the core bored at the rear and the exterior turned up in a lathe. The projectiles were finished in a similar manner to others described above. The final, or tempering treatment, which gave the required hardness/toughness profile (differential hardening) to the projectile body, was a closely guarded secret.
The rear cavity of these projectiles was capable of receiving a small bursting charge of about 2% of the weight of the complete projectile; when this is used, the projectile is called a shell, not a shot. The HE filling of the shell, whether fused or unfused, had a tendency to explode on striking armor in excess of its ability to perforate.

Second World War
APHE shells for tank guns, although used by most forces of this period, were not used by the British. The only British APHE projectile was the Shell AP, Mk1 for the 2 pdr anti-tank gun and this was dropped as it was found that the fuse tended to separate from the body during penetration. Even when the fuse didn’t separate and the system functioned correctly, damage to the interior was little different from the solid shot, and so did not warrant the additional time and cost of producing a shell version. APHE projectiles of this period used a bursting charge of about 1-3% of the weight of the complete projectile, the filling detonated by a rear mounted delay fuse. The explosive used in APHE projectiles needs to be highly insensitive to shock to prevent premature detonation. The US forces normally used the Explosive D, otherwise known as ammonium picrate, for this purpose. Other combatant forces of the period used various explosives, suitability desensitized (usually by the use of waxes mixed with the explosive).

Due to the increase in armor thickness during the conflict, the projectiles’ impact velocity had to be increased to ensure perforation. At these higher velocities, the hardened tip of the shot or shell has to be protected from the initial impact shock, or risk shattering. To raise the impact velocity and stop the shattering, they were initially fitted with soft steel penetrating caps. The best performance penetrating caps were not very aerodynamic, so an additional ballistic cap was later fitted to reduce drag. The resulting projectile types were given the names "Armor-Piercing Capped (APC)" and "Armor-Piercing Capped Ballistic Capped (APCBC)".

Early WWII-era uncapped AP projectiles fired from high-velocity guns were able to penetrate about twice their caliber at close range (100 m). At longer ranges (500-1,000 m), this dropped 1.5-1.1 calibers due to the poor ballistic shape and higher drag of the smaller-diameter early projectiles. Later in the conflict, APCBC fired at close range (100 m) from large-caliber, high-velocity guns (75-128 mm) were able to penetrate a much greater thickness of armor in relation to their caliber (2.5 times) and also a greater thickness (2-1.75 times) at longer ranges (1,500-2,000 m).

Modern Day
Armor-piercing shells
Armor-piercing shells in the classic form are not common in modern guns, though they may be found in the larger (40-57 mm) weapons, especially those of Russian- or Soviet-era descent. Modern guns instead fire semi-armor-piercing high-explosive (SAPHE) shells, which have less anti-armor capability, but far greater anti-materiel/personnel effects. The modern SAPHE projectiles still have a ballistic cap, hardened body and base fuze, but tend to have a far thinner body material and higher explosive content (4-15%). Common abbreviations for modern AP and SAP shells are: HEI(BF), SAPHE, SAPHEI and SAPHEI-T.

Most modern active protection systems (APS) are unlikely to be able to defeat full-caliber AP rounds fired from a large-caliber tank gun. The APS can defeat the two most common anti-armor projectiles in use today: HEAT and APFSDS. The defeat of HEAT projectiles is accomplished through damage/detonation of the HE filling or damage to the shaped charge liner and/or fusing system, and defeat of APFSDS projectiles is accomplished by inducing yaw/pitch and/or fracturing of the rod. Due to the AP shot/shell's high mass, rigidity, short overall length, and thick body, they are hardly affected by the defeat methods employed by APS systems (fragmentation warheads or projected plates).
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter tungsten directory site.


Tungsten String for Music Instrument

Tungsten products generally include everything from household items to aerospace technology. The metal is almost as dense as gold and has the highest melting point of any metal in purest form at 6,192°F (3,422°C). These properties popularize the use of tungsten in many applications. Tungsten has a wide range of industrial use when combined with other elements and industrial metals to make tungsten heavy alloy.
People use tungsten products daily without realizing it. Extreme heat resistance enables thin tungsten wire to be used as the filament in incandescent light bulbs, for example, and when combined with calcium and magnesium, it becomes fluorescent lighting. This quality also allows tungsten to be incorporated into the heating elements of heaters and furnaces. Artisans also might use tungsten oxide in ceramic and glassware glazes, producing a yellowish hue. Comparable to gold in hardness, the metal may substitute for gold or platinum in jewelry making, as tungsten is hypoallergenic and virtually scratch resistant.
A compound radius fretboard allows exhilaratingly effortless tungsten alloy string bending anywhere along the neck, and new N3 noiseless pickups supercharge your sound with improved Stratocaster tones for sparkling bell-like chime with no hum.

Reconfigured S-1 switching offers even more knockout tonal options; other features include staggered locking tuners, two-point synchronized American Deluxe tremolo bridge with pop-in arm, and beveled neck heel.

Tungsten Wire for Music Instrument Steel core strings came into existence partially because of the drawbacks of gut strings and as a concession to beginning students. Steel core strings are very stable in pitch, even when first installed. They also have a sound that is very different from gut strings. They all tend to have a sound that is simple, clear, direct, pure, and usually a bit hard with few overtones and no real complexity. Often they are bright and a bit thin sounding. This quality is not as pronounced in the cello where all metal strings are more standard. Non-classical players, especially country and folk fiddlers, as well as many jazz musicians often prefer steel strings. They also work well with small size, inexpensive student instruments. In addition, most bass players use steel core strings. There have been some interesting changes in the construction of steel strings and these changes have been of particular interest to cellists. Steel cores (usually thin fibers of roped or spiraled steel) are now wrapped with a variety of metals such as aluminum, chrome steel, tungsten, silver and most recently, titanium. These changes in technology have allowed manufacturers to produce strings with more sophisticated sounds.
If you want to know more knowledge, you can enter tungsten directory site.


Why tungsten alloy is used as gold substitution?

In theory, as density is 19.1g/cm3, which is approximately 70% denser than lead, uranium could be used as material of making fake coin. However, it is weakly radioactive and not as dense as gold, so it does not appear to be a practical method.

Then people have discovered that tungsten is environmental-friendly, durable and hardness, the most important is that its density of 19.25g/cm3 is just about the same density as gold (19.3g/cm3), which bears the similar specific gravity. These advantages make tungsten alloy jewelry enjoys the superiority to be the best substitute for the costly metal of gold or platinum. It is necessary to tell that tungsten gold-plated would not work for several reasons but a coin with a tungsten center and gold all around it could not be detected as counterfeit by density measurement alone.

The appliances for tungsten alloy as gold substitution
Nowadays, tungsten alloy gold substitution is increasingly used in some field relevant to gold or platinum substitution, such as: tungsten alloy jewelry, e.g. ring, ear ring, necklace, wrist chain, etc. Also, it is widely adopted in making souvenir coins, such as memorial crown and other application such as watch band.

Since tungsten alloy jewelry bears a special property of longevity and high durability, when it is utilized to make jewelry, it always implicate the love between lovers or couple could be everlasting. Its hardness makes it ideal for rings that will resist scratching, are hypoallergenic, and will not need polishing, which is especially useful in designs with a brushed finish.

Tungsten Directory offer tungsten alloy as gold substitution
We are well accustomed to exploit more innovative applications of tungsten products. Tungsten gold-plated is one of our main products.
In details, pure tungsten, in the forms of round disc, plate, sheet, ring, and etc., can be perfectly coated with gold layer with clinquant shine, to replace gold or platinum merchandise except its currency function. Tungsten gold-plated becomes more and more popular.