2013年10月31日星期四

APFSDS IN BATTLEFIELD 4

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is ideal raw materials for armor piercing fin stablized discarding sabot (APFSDS).

APFSDS is a type of ammunition which, like a bullet, does not contain explosives and uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. The term can apply to any type of armor-piercing shot but typically refers to a modern type of armor piercing weapon, the tungsten alloy armo piercing fin stabilized discarding sabot, a type of long-rod penetrator (LRP), and not to small arms bullets.

APFSDS is widely adopted by ZTZ-99 main battle tank. ZTZ-99 is one of the most advanced tanks which services in PLA.

On October 29th, 2013, Battlefield 4 was on sale. I have bought one. In this game, I can play as a solider of PLA and fight against U.S. Marine in Shanghai. What makes me excited is that I can use ZTZ-99.

2013年10月21日星期一

Anti-satellite Weapon

Military tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy alloy. Afrter being swaged, the ultimate tensile strength of tungsten alloy rod is increased. The tensile strength of military tungsten alloy swaging rod
can reach 1200MPa, or even 1400MPa. Military tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used for anti-satellite weapon.
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United States, the former Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are known to have developed these weapons.
The development and design of anti-satellite weapons has followed a number of paths. The initial efforts by the USA and the USSR were using ground-launched missiles from the 1950s; many more exotic proposals came afterwards.

ASM-135 ASAT

Military tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy alloy. Afrter being swaged, the ultimate tensile strength of tungsten alloy rod is increased. The tensile strength of military tungsten alloy swaging rod
can reach 1200MPa, or even 1400MPa. Military tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used for ASM-135 ASAT.

The ASM-135 ASAT is an air-launched anti-satellite multistage missile that was developed by Ling-Temco-Vought's LTV Aerospace division. The ASM-135 was carried exclusively by the United States Air Force (USAF)'s F-15 Eagle fighter aircraft.

The ASM-135 was designed to be launched from an F-15A in a supersonic zoom climb. The F-15's mission computer and heads-up display were modified to provide steering directions for the pilot. The actual intercept was done subsonically.

With high tensile strength and high hardness of military tungsten alloy swaging rod, ASM-135 ASAT can destroy satellite by using kinetic energy.

2013年10月14日星期一

SS.11


Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod can be used for SS.11.

SS.11 is the designation of the Nord Aviation MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile. In American service the missile was designated the AGM-22. The missile entered service with the French Army in 1956. Production of the SS.11/SS.12 series ceased some time in the 1980s; but in 1978 168,450 missiles had been produced. The price of the SS.11 in the late 1960s was stated at approximately $US1,900 dollars.

ENTAC


Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod can be used for ENTAC.

ENTAC or MGM-32A was a French MCLOS wire-guided Anti-tank missile. Developed in the early 1950s, the missile entered service with the French army in 1957. Production ended in 1974 after approximately 140,000 missiles had been built.

The missile was developed by the French Government agency - DTAT (Direction Technique des Armements Terrestres) at the same time as the private industry SS.10 Development time for the ENTAC was longer than the SS.10 and did not enter service till 1957. It proved to be a great improvement over the SS.10 which entered production five years earlier. Once fully developed and tested, production of the ENTAC was given to the firm of Aerospatiale. The ENTAC was designed to be a man portable weapon or operated from a small vehicle like the Jeep, replacing the Nord SS.10 in French service.

ERYX

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungtsen alloy swaging rod is used for ERYX.

ERYX is a short-range portable SACLOS-based wire-guided anti-tank missile (ATGM) produced by European company MBDA. It is used by several countries, including the Canadian Army, French, and Norwegian armies. The weapon can also be used against bunkers and pillboxes. It also has some capability in the anti aircraft role to bring down low flying helicopters, due to its wire guided system. An agreement was reached in 1989 between the French and Canadian governments to co-produce the ERYX missile system. It entered service in 1994.

SS.10

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungtsen alloy swaging rod is used for SS.10.

SS.10 is the designation of the Nord Aviation MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile designed by the French engineer Jean Bastien-Thiry, who later attempted to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle and was sentenced to death. In American service the missile was called the MGM-21A. The missile entered service in 1955 with the French army. It was used briefly by the US army in the early 1960s. The missile ceased production in January 1962 after approximately 30,000 missiles had been built.

2013年10月9日星期三

AT-2

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for AT-2.

The AT-2 Swatter is the NATO reporting name for the 3M11 Fleyta (flute) MCLOS radio command Anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union

The missile was developed by the Nudelman OKB-16 design bureau. It was developed as a heavy ATGM at about the same time as the AT-1 Snapper for use on both ground launchers and helicopters. It addressed some of the problems of the AT-1, it was much faster, and had slightly longer range. These improvements were achieved by sending commands via radio link instead of a trailing guidance wire - which allowed the missile to travel faster. However it did make it vulnerable to jamming. The missile system was shown to Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in September 1964, and accepted for service shortly afterward.

3M6 Shmel

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for 3M6 Shmel.

The 3M6 Shmel is an MCLOS wire-guided Anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. "3M6" is its GRAU designation. Its NATO reporting name is AT-1 Snapper.

Too large to be manportable, it was typically deployed from specialised vehicles or helicopters. The missile was intended to supplement traditional anti-tank weapons like the 100 mm anti-tank gun whose accuracy beyond 1500 m is poor. The missiles' accuracy in contrast remained high as far as its maximum range of 2000 m.

However the system's bulk, slow speed and poor combat accuracy drove development of later SACLOS systems like the AT-5 Spandrel.

2013年10月8日星期二

Naval Strike Missile

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod can be used for Naval Strike Missile.

The Naval Strike Missile (NSM) is an anti-ship and land-attack missile developed by the Norwegian company Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA).

The Naval Strike Missile's initial serial production contract was signed in June 2007. It has been chosen by the Royal Norwegian Navy for its new Fridtjof Nansen class frigates and Skjold class patrol boats. In December 2008 the NSM was selected by the Polish Navy, which ordered total 50 land-based missiles (including 2 for testing) under deals from 2008 and 2011, with delivery planned for 2013-2016.

RIM-67 Standard

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod can be used for RIM-67 Standard

The RIM-67 Standard ER (SM-1ER/SM-2ER) is an extended range surface-to-air missile (SAM) and anti ship missile originally developed for the United States Navy (USN). The RIM-67 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-8 Talos, a 1950s system deployed on a variety of USN ships, and eventually replaced the RIM-2 Terrier as well since it was of a similar size and fit existing Terrier launchers and magazines. The RIM-66 Standard MR was essentially the same missile without the booster stage, designed to replace the RIM-24 Tartar. The RIM-66/67 series thus became the US Navy's universal SAM system, hence "Standard Missile."

The RIM-67A (SM-1ER Block I) was the Navy's replacement for RIM-8 Talos missile. Improved technology allowed the RIM-67 to be reduced to the size of the earlier RIM-2 Terrier missile. Existing ships with the Mk86 guided missile fire control system, or "Terrier" were adapted to employ the new missile in place of the older RIM-2 Terrier missile. Ships that switched from the RIM-2 Terrier to the RIM-67A were still referred to as Terrier ships even though they were equipped with the newer missile.

2013年9月30日星期一

GBU-15

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod has been widely used for GBU-15.

Guided Bomb Unit 15 is an unpowered, glide weapon used to destroy high-value enemy targets. It was designed for use with F-15E Strike Eagle, F-111 'Aardvark' and F-4 Phantom II aircraft, but the United States Air Force is currently only deploying it from the F-15E. The GBU-15 has long-range maritime anti-ship capability with the B-52 Stratofortress. Rockwell International is the prime contractor for this weapon system.

The weapon consists of modular components that are attached to either a general purpose Mark 84 bomb or a penetrating-warhead BLU-109 bomb. Each weapon has five components—a forward guidance section, warhead adapter section, control module, airfoil components, and a weapon data link.
The guidance section is attached to the nose of the weapon and contains either a television guidance system for daytime or an imaging infrared system for night or limited, adverse weather operations. A data link in the tail section sends guidance updates to the control aircraft that enables the weapon systems operator to guide the bomb by remote control to its target.

An external electrical conduit extends the length of the warhead which attaches the guidance adapter and control unit. The conduit carries electrical signals between the guidance and control sections. The umbilical receptacle passes guidance and control data between cockpit control systems of the launching aircraft and the weapon prior to launch.

CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod has been widely used for CBU-87.

The CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition is a cluster bomb used by the United States Air Force, developed by Aerojet General/Honeywell and introduced in 1986 to replace the earlier cluster bombs used in the Vietnam War. CBU stands for Cluster Bomb Unit. When the CBU-87 is used in conjunction with the Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) guidance tail kit, it becomes a precision-guided weapon, designated CBU-103.

The CBU-87 without WCMD is designed to be dropped from an aircraft at any altitude and any air speed. It is a free-falling bomb and relies on the aircraft to aim it before it drops; once dropped it needs no further instruction, as opposed to guided munitions or smart bombs. The bomb can be dropped by a variety of modern-day aircraft. It is 7 feet, 7 inches (2.33 meters) long, has a diameter of 16 inches (40 centimeters), and weighs roughly 950 pounds (430 kg). The price is US$14,000 per bomb.

Each CBU-87 consists of an SUU-65B canister, a fuse with 12 time selections and 202 submunitions (or bomblets) designated BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb (CEB). Each bomblet is a yellow cylinder with a length of 20 centimeters and a diameter of 6 centimeters. The BLU-97/B bomblets are designed to be used against armour, personnel and softskin targets and consist of a shaped charge, a scored steel fragmentation case and a zirconium ring for incendiary effects. The CBU-87 can also be equipped with an optional FZU-39/B proximity sensor with 10 altitude selections.

2013年9月29日星期日

KS-1

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for KS-1 .

The Kai Shan - 1 (KS-1) (凯山一号) is the first Chinese surface-to-air missile to adopt a phased array radar.

The KS-1 missile was developed for the PLA as a replacement for the HQ-2, itself a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina and used the same command guidance and SJ-202 Fan Song engagement radar along with what appears to be a HQ-2 single-rail launcher adapted to twin rails for the more compact KS-1 missile. This launcher could be mounted on a 6x6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion.

KS-1A is the updated version, roughly the Chinese equivalent of the American MIM-23 HAWK, except it was designed to engage missiles as well as aircraft. This unique design feature means that it is the first Chinese SAM to adopt an indigenous planar passive phased array engagement radar, designated the H-200, which can simultaneously track multiple targets 100+ km away, it can guide six missiles to three targets at the same time (two missiles at each target). The new radars substantially improve the systems performance over the original KS-1.


HQ-9

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for HQ-9.

The HQ-9 (Chinese: 红旗; "red flag" or "red banner") is China’s new generation medium- to long-range, active radar homing air defence missile.

The naval HQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant. Its naval type HHQ-9 is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C Lanzhou class destroyer in VLS launch tubes.

The land-based HQ-9 system has an anti-radiation variant, known as the FT-2000 for export. The export designation for air defense version is FD-2000 (with FD stands for Fang Dun, meaning defensive shield), and its developer China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC) first made it public at the Africa Aerospace and Defence Exhibition held at Cape Town in March 2009. In September 2013 the HQ-9 submitted by CPMIEC won Turkey's T-LORAMIDS program to co-produce 12 long range air defense systems.


2013年9月27日星期五

9K38 Igla

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for 9K38 Igla.

The 9K38 Igla is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). "9K38" is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name is Grouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet. The latest variant is the 9K338 Igla-S NATO reporting name SA-24 Grinch. It has been fielded by the Russian Army since 2004.

There exists a two-barrel 9K38 missile launcher called Djigit.

YJ-83

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for YJ-83.

The Yingji-83 (or YJ-83 - Chinese: 鹰击-83, literally "Eagle Strike") is a Chinese anti-ship missile based on the earlier YJ-82 model of the same class. It was designed as a supersonic successor to the subsonic YJ-82. The weapon's export designation is C-803.

The chief designer for the YJ-83 and the YJ-85 (the latest member of the YJ-8 series) is Huang Ruisong (黄锐松), who succeeded Liang Shoupan (梁守槃) upon his retirement. Ruisong designed the YJ-83 to have an operational range of over 255 km when launched from the air and roughly 150 to 200 km when surface-launched. The YJ-83 anti-ship missile appeared in the National Day parade for the first time in 1999, and was only armed with a radar seeker. Seekers for the YJ-82/C-802 upgrade are also available for the YJ-83/C-803, but it is not yet clear if the Chinese have adopted these seekers. The launching and storage unit of the new missile retained the capability to handle earlier missiles, including the CY-1 ASW missile.

2013年9月26日星期四

Iron Dome

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Iron Dome.

Iron Dome is a mobile all-weather air defense system[6] developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. The system is designed to intercept and destroy short-range rockets and artillery shells fired from distances of 4 to 70 kilometers away and whose trajectory would take them to a populated area. Israel hopes to increase the range of Iron Dome's interceptions, from the current maximum of 70 km (45 miles) to 250 km and make it more versatile so that it could intercept rockets coming from two directions simultaneously.

Iron Dome was declared operational and initially deployed on 27 March 2011 near Beersheba. On 7 April 2011, the system successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched from Gaza for the first time. On 10 March 2012, The Jerusalem Post reported that the system shot down 90% of rockets launched from Gaza that would have landed in populated areas. By November 2012, official statements indicated that it had intercepted 400+ rockets. On 19 November, defense reporter Mark Thompson wrote that while these numbers were impossible to confirm, the "lack of Israeli casualties suggests Iron Dome is the most-effective, most-tested missile shield the world has ever seen."

On 28 September 2011, Flight Global reported that according to a source at Rafael, the Israel Defense Forces learned during its deployment that Iron Dome is also effective against aircraft up to an altitude of 32,800 ft (10,000 m).

SPYDER

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for SPYDER.

The SPYDER (Surface-to-air PYthon and DERby) is an advanced anti-aircraft missile system developed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, which is fitted atop a Czech Tatra truck. It implements surface-to-air versions of the Python-5 and Derby missiles of the same company.

SPYDER is a quick reaction medium range missile system that can engage aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area mobile forces in combat areas. Research that was used to develop the SPYDER was later used to develop the Iron Dome. Test firings of the system by the company were underway as of 2010.

RT-2UTTKh Topol-M

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for RT-2UTTKh Topol-M.

The RT-2UTTKh «Topol-M» (Russian: РТ-2УТТХ «Тополь-М», NATO reporting name: SS-27 "Sickle B", other designations: RS-12M1, RS-12M2, RT-2PM2)[4] is one of the most recent intercontinental ballistic missiles to be deployed by Russia (see RS-24), and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

In its Russian designation РТ stands for "ракета твердотопливная," Raketa Tverdotoplivnaya ("solid fuel rocket"), while УТТХ – for "улучшенные тактико-технические характеристики," uluchshenniye taktiko-tekhnicheskie kharakteristiki ("improved tactical and technical characteristics"). "Topol" (тополь) in Russian means "white poplar". It is designed and produced exclusively by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology, and built at the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.

2013年9月25日星期三

Arrow

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Arrow.

The Arrow or Hetz  is a family of anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a theater missile defense system that would be more effective against ballistic missiles than the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile. Jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States, development of the system began in 1986 and has continued since, drawing some contested criticism. Undertaken by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Boeing, it is overseen by the Israeli Ministry of Defense's "Homa") administration and the U.S. Missile Defense Agency.

The Arrow system consists of the joint production hypersonic Arrow anti-missile interceptor, the Elta EL/M-2080 "Green Pine" early-warning AESA radar, the Tadiran Telecom "Golden Citron" ("Citron Tree") C3I center, and the Israel Aerospace Industries "Brown Hazelnut" ("Hazelnut Tree") launch control center. The system is transportable, as it can be moved to other prepared sites.

Following the construction and testing of the Arrow 1 technology demonstrator, production and deployment began with the Arrow 2 version of the missile. The Arrow is considered one of the most advanced missile defense programs currently in existence. It is the first operational missile defense system specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles. Initial operating capability of Arrow 3 is expected in 2014, providing exo-atmospheric interception of ballistic missiles.[14] The first Arrow battery was declared fully operational in October 2000. Although several of its components have been exported, the Israeli Air Defense Command within the Israeli Air Force (IAF) of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is currently the sole user of the complete Arrow system.

Pantsir-S1

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Pantsir-S1.

Pantsir-S1 (Russian: Панцирь-С1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of SA-19/SA-N-11 and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased-array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.

It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defense consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air-missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance. Its purpose is protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. Aerial targets include everything with a minimum radar-cross-section of 1 cm2 and speeds up to a maximum of 1300 metre/second within a maximum range of 20,000 metres and heights up to 15,000 metres—including all types of aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and air-to-ground precision guided weapons. The system is able to defend against stealth aircraft,[4] and has capability for anti-munitions missions.

2013年9月24日星期二

9K22 Tunguska

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for 9K22 Tunguska.

The 2K22 Tunguska (English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 "Grison".

9K34 Strela-3

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for 9K34 Strela-3.

The 9K34 Strela-3 (English: arrow) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system. "9K34" is its GRAU designation and its NATO reporting name is SA-14 Gremlin. The missile was largely based on the earlier Strela 2, and thus development proceeded rapidly. The new weapon was accepted to service in the Soviet Army in January 1974.

2013年9月23日星期一

Tor Missile System

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Tor missile system.

The Tor missile system (English: torus) is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for engaging airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (Anti-Munitions). Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K330, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 "Gauntlet". A navalized variant was developed under the name 3K95 "Kinzhal", also known as the SA-N-9 "Gauntlet". Tor was also the first air defence system in the world designed from the start to shoot down precision guided weapons like the AGM-86 ALCM.

Buk Missile System

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Buk missile system.

The Buk missile system  is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation and designed to engage cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful"). The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" as well as the US Department of Defense designation SA-11. Since its initial introduction into service the Buk missile system has been continually upgraded and refined with the latest incarnation carrying the designation 9K317 "Buk-M2".

2013年9月22日星期日

S-400

Tungsten alloy with high density, high melting point, excellent hardness, high tensile strength, high temperature resistance and low vapor pressure is gradually standout among the various swaging rod making materials. What is more, tungsten alloy has superior wearing resistance, prolongs the life of tungsten alloy swaging rod. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for S-400.

The S-400 Triumf (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with the Russian Armed Forces.
The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, but in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.
Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.

S-300

Tungsten alloy with high density, high melting point, excellent hardness, high tensile strength, high temperature resistance and low vapor pressure is gradually standout among the various swaging rod making materials. What is more, tungsten alloy has superior wearing resistance, prolongs the life of tungsten alloy swaging rod. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for S-300.

The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, all based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles.

The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft.

The project-managing developer of the S-300 is Russian Almaz corporation (government owned, aka "KB-1") which is currently a part of "Almaz-Antei" Air Defence Concern. S-300 uses missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" design bureau (a separate government corporation, aka "OKB-2").
The S-300 is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded. Its radars have the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12. S-300 deployment time is five minutes. The S-300 missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. An evolved version of the S-300 system is the S-400 (NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler), entering limited service in 2004.

2013年9月18日星期三

3M-54 Klub

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for 3M-54 Klub.

The Russian 3M-54 is a domestic surface ship and submarine-launched anti-ship missile developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Its US Department of Defense (DOD) designation is "SS-N-27A" with the NATO codename of "Sizzler". Derived export versions are the 3M-54E and the 3M-54E1. The 3M-54E has a DOD designation, the SS-N-27B; (it does not have a NATO codename). The 3M-54 and 3M-54E, in their final stage, make a supersonic 'sprint' to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M-54E1 has the capability of subsonic speed in its whole flight. Its range is longer than the 3M-54E.
The name of "Klub" is used for export versions, the 3M-54E and 3M54E1.

The missile is a modular system with five different variants: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack, and two with an anti-submarine role. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants. But each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launched System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine has no need for such an addition, but has a conventional booster instead.

P-500 Bazalt

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for P-500 Bazalt.

The P-500 Bazalt is a liquid-fueled, rocket-powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet and Russian navies. Its GRAU designation is 4K80 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-12 Sandbox.

Developed by OKB-52 MAP (later NPO Mashinostroyeniye), it entered service in 1973 to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock. The P-500 Bazalt was first deployed in 1975 on the Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev, and was later added to both the Echo II class submarine and the Juliett class submarine. A version of the P-500 Bazalt with improved guidance and engines is used on the Slava class cruiser. The sixteen launchers dominate the decks of the class.

The P-500 Bazalt has a 550 km range and a payload of 1,000 kg, which allows it to carry a 350 kt nuclear or a 950 kg semi-armor-piercing high explosive warhead (currently only the conventional version remains in service). The P-500 Bazalt uses active radar homing for terminal guidance, and can receive mid-course correction from the Tupolev Tu-95D, the Kamov Ka-25B and the Kamov Ka-27B.

The missiles were intended to be used in salvos; a submarine could launch eight in rapid succession, maintaining control of each through a separate datalink. In flight the group could co-ordinate their actions; one would fly up to 7,000 meters (23,000 feet) and use its active radar to search for targets, forwarding this data to the other missiles which remained at low altitude. The missiles were programmed so that half of a salvo would head for a carrier target, with the rest dividing between other ships. If the high flying missile was shot down another from the salvo would automatically pop up to take its place. All of the missiles would switch to active radar for the terminal phase of the attack.

2013年9月17日星期二

R-29RMU2 Layner

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for R-29RMU2 Layner.

The R-29RMU2 Layner is a Russian liquid-fuelled submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) developed by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau and produced by the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.Derived from the R-29RMU Sineva SLBM, the Layner can carry twelve nuclear warheads, twice that of the Sineva's. Reportedly capable of piercing anti-ballistic missile defences, the Layner, with its high payload-mass ratio, was described by its developer as the best ballistic missile in existence. It is expected to enter service with the Russian Navy's Delta IV class submarines shortly after a successful test programme that spanned from May to September 2011.

SS-N-22

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for SS-N-22.

One of the SS-N-22s was the P-80 Zubr, designed by a team led by Vladimir Chelomei. The Zubr was rocket-propelled and armed with a 250 kilogram warhead. It was carried by early-model Sovremenny-class destroyers and Tarantul-class corvettes. The submarine-launched version of this missile was also designated as an SS-N-22 Sunburn by NATO but was known to the Soviets as the P-100 Oniks.

The other, unrelated SS-N-22 was the Raduga P-270 Moskit. It was ramjet-propelled (though launched by a small solid-fuel rocket), and was carried by later-model Sovremenny class destroyers, Tarantul class corvettes, and several smaller warships. This weapon has a top speed of Mach 3.[1] The high speed of the missile means a typical response time for the target of only 25 to 30 seconds, giving a target little time to react. Moskit can be armed with a warhead of 320 kg.
Another version of this weapon is called the ASM-MMS;it is intended to be launched by a Su-33.

2013年9月16日星期一

BrahMos

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for the warhead of BrahMos.

BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.

It is the world's fastest cruise missile in operation.The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0. The land-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service, with the air and submarine-launched versions currently in the testing phase.  An air-launched variant of BrahMos is planned which is expected to come out in 2012 and will make India the only country with supersonic cruise missiles in their army, navy, and air force. A hypersonic version of the missile namely BrahMos-II is also presently under development with speed of Mach 7 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It is expected to be ready for testing by 2017.

Though India had wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like P-700 Granit, Russia opted for the shorter range sister of the missile, P-800 Oniks, in order to comply with Missile Technology Control Regime restrictions, to which Russia is a signatory. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and guidance has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is expected to reach a total order worth US$13 billion.

Tomahawk

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for the warhead of Tomahawk.

The Tomahawk is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. The missile was named after the Native American axe. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was initially designed as a medium to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. It has been improved several times and, due to corporate divestitures and acquisitions, is now made by Raytheon. Some Tomahawks were also manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Defense, Space & Security).

The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets. Although a number of launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only sea (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance, and range capabilities.

2013年9月13日星期五

AGM-88 HARM

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for AGM-88 HARM.

The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is a tactical, air-to-surface missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems. It was originally developed by Texas Instruments as a replacement for the AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM system. Production was later taken over by Raytheon Corporation when it purchased the defense production business of Texas Instruments.

The AGM-88 can detect, attack and destroy a radar antenna or transmitter with minimal aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the missile's nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, booster-sustainer rocket motor propels the missile at speeds over Mach 2. HARM, a Navy-led program, was initially integrated onto the A-6E, A-7 and F/A-18 and later onto the EA-6B. RDT&E for use on the F-14 was begun, but not completed. The Air Force introduced HARM on the F-4G Wild Weasel and later on specialized F-16s equipped with the HARM Targeting System (HTS).

Exocet Anti-ship Missile

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Exocet.

The Exocet (French for "flying fish") is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

The Exocet is built by MBDA, a European missile company. Development began in 1967 by Nord as a ship-launched missile named MM 38. A few years later Aerospatiale and Nord merged. The basic missile body design was based on the Nord AS30 air to ground tactical missile. The air-launched Exocet was developed in 1974 and entered service with the French Navy five years later.

2013年9月12日星期四

Harpoon Anti-ship Missile

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for Harpoon.

The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, developed and manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Defense, Space & Security). In 2004, Boeing delivered the 7,000th Harpoon unit since the weapon's introduction in 1977. The missile system has also been further developed into a land-strike weapon, the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM).

The regular Harpoon uses active radar homing, and a low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory to improve survivability and lethality. The missile's launch platforms include:

Fixed-wing aircraft (the AGM-84, without the solid-fuel rocket booster)
Surface ships (the RGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster that detaches when expended, to allow the missile's main turbojet to maintain flight)

Submarines (the UGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster and encapsulated in a container to enable submerged launch through a torpedo tube);

Coastal defense batteries, from which it would be fired with a solid-fuel rocket booster.

2013年9月9日星期一

BGM-71 TOW

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for BGM-71 TOW.

The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided") is an anti-tank missile. First produced in 1970, the TOW is one of the most widely used anti-tank guided missiles.

Initially developed by Hughes Aircraft between 1963 and 1968, the XBGM-71A was designed for both ground and heli-borne applications. In 1997, Raytheon Co. purchased Hughes Electronics from General Motors Corporation, so development and production of TOW systems now comes under the Raytheon brand.The BGM-71 TOW wire-guided heavy anti-tank missile is produced by Raytheon Systems Company. The weapon is used in anti-armor, anti-bunker, anti-fortification and anti-amphibious landing roles. The TOW is in service with over 45 militaries and is integrated on over 15,000 ground, vehicle and helicopter platforms worldwide.

In its basic infantry form, the system comprises a missile in a sealed tube which is clipped to a launch tube prior to use. When required, the missile tube is attached to the rear of the launch tube, the target sighted and the missile fired. The launch motor (booster) fires through lateral nozzles amidships and propels the missile from the tube, at which point four wings indexed at 45 degrees just forward of the booster nozzles spring open forwards, four tail control surfaces flip open rearwards, and sustained propulsion is subsequently provided by the flight motor. An optical sensor on the sight continuously monitors the position of a light source on the missile relative to the line-of-sight, and then corrects the trajectory of the missile by generating electrical signals that are passed down two wires to command the control surface actuators.

The TOW missile in its current variations is not a fire-and-forget weapon, and like most second generation wire-guided missiles has Semi-Automatic Command Line of Sight guidance. This means that the guidance system is directly linked to the platform, and requires that the target be kept in the shooter's line of sight until the missile impacts. This has been the major impetus to develop either a fire-and-forget version of the system or to develop a successor with this ability.

In October 2012, Raytheon received a contract to produce 6,676 TOW (wireless-guided) missiles for the U.S. military. Missiles that will be produced include the BGM-71E TOW 2A, the BGM-71F TOW 2B, the TOW 2B Aero, and the BGM-71H TOW Bunker Buster.

2013年9月6日星期五

MILAN

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for MILAN.

MILAN (French: Missile d´infanterie léger antichar; English: Anti-Tank Light Infantry Missile, "milan(e)" is French and German for "kite") is a European anti-tank guided missile. Design of the MILAN started in 1962. It was ready for trials in 1971, and was accepted for service in 1972. It is a wire guided SACLOS (Semi-Automatic Command to Line-Of-Sight) missile, which means the sight of the launch unit has to be aimed at the target to guide the missile. The MILAN can be equipped with a MIRA thermal sight, or MILIS to give it night-firing ability.

MILAN is a French and German missile that has been license-built by Italy, Spain, Britain and India. As it is guided by wire by an operator, this missile can avoid most countermeasures (flares and chaffs). The drawbacks are its short range, the exposure of the operator, and that it requires a skilled and well-trained operator.

2013年9月5日星期四

HJ-8

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging is used for penetrator which is adopted by HJ-8.

The HJ-8 or Hongjian-8 ("红箭-8" transliterated as "Red Arrow-8") is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by the People's Liberation Army since the late 1980s. Pakistan produces this missile system under licence as the Baktar-Shikan at Kahuta Research Laboratories. It is able to defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA).

n 1970, Chinese armoured corps first proposed to develop a successor to HJ-73 and this was later approved, designated as the AFT-8 or HJ-8. The missile was jointly developed by Research Institute 203 and 282nd Factory, but the program was interrupted by political turmoil. The key designers were Wang Xingzhi (王兴治) and Zhao Jiazheng (赵家铮), who developed the missile. Development was not completed until early 1980s, after the end of the Cultural Revolution. After receiving state certification the missile entered mass-production in 1984. HJ-8 is an optically tracked, wire guided ATGM. A series of upgraded variants have been developed since. HJ-8 and its variants are manufactured by NORINCO's Factory 282 (Jiangnan Machine Factory—江南机器厂), Factory 5618 (Hunan South China Photoelectricity Instrument Plant—湖南华南光电仪器厂) of China and Kahuta Research Laboratories of Pakistan.

The HJ-8 series can be considered the Chinese equivalent of the American BGM-71 TOW and Franco-German MILAN / Euromissile HOT anti-tank missiles. HJ-8 is a tube-launched, optically tracked and wire-guided missile system armed with a HEAT anti-tank warhead. The HJ-8 is a combination many experts believe of three Western antitank missile systems obtained from nations in the Middle East and Asia that were then examined and reverse engineered and modified: the tripod from the US BGM-71 TOW; the tracker-control unit from the French/German MILAN; and the missile from the UK Swingfire.

There are numerous improved models following the original HJ-8, designated HJ-8A to HJ-8H, each incorporating improved features over the previous model. HJ-8E entered service in mid-1990. The HJ-8E anti-tank missile weighs 24.5 kg, has a range of up to 4,000 m, and can also defeat explosive reactive armour (ERA). The latest variant is the HJ-8H.

Designed to be both dependable and accurate, HJ-8 is now the standard anti-tank armament of the WZ-9, Mi-17, and Gazelle (replacing the original Euromissile HOT first carried) helicopter gunships of the PLA.

2013年9月4日星期三

AGM-65 Maverick

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for AGM-65 Maverick.

The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support. The most widely produced precision-guided missile in the Western world, it is effective against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, ground transportation and fuel storage facilities. Originally designed and built by Hughes Missile Systems, development of the AGM-65 spanned from 1966 to 1972, after which it entered service with the United States Air Force in August 1972. Since then, it has been exported to more than 30 countries and is certified on 25 aircraft. The Maverick served during the Vietnam, Yom Kippur, Iran–Iraq and Gulf Wars, along with other smaller conflicts, destroying enemy forces and installations with varying degrees of success.

Since its introduction into service, numerous Maverick versions had been designed and produced, using electro-optical, laser, charge-coupled device and infra-red guidance systems. The AGM-65 has two types of warhead: one has a contact fuze in the nose, the other has a heavyweight warhead fitted with a delayed-action fuze, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before detonating. The Maverick shares the same configuration as Hughes's AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-54 Phoenix, and measures more than 8 ft (2.4 m) in length and 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter.

2013年9月3日星期二

YJ-82

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is made of tungsten alloy rod through calcinations. The normal method used in the processing are extruding, forging and sintering. After calcinations, tungsten alloy swaging rod has higher ductility, toughness and tensile strength than tungsten alloy rod, so it can be used for a longer time. Tungsten alloy swaging rod is widely used in industry as well as military areas, such as rifle bullet, armor piercing, snipe rifle penetrator, etc.

Tungsten alloy swaging rod is used for YJ-82

The Yingji-82 or YJ-82 (Chinese: 鹰击-82, literally "Eagle Strike"; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinese anti-ship missile first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. Due to the Yingji-82 missile's small radar reflectivity, low attack flight path (only five to seven meters above the sea surface) and strong anti-jamming capability of its guidance system, target ships have a very small chance of intercepting the missile. The single shot hit probability of the Yingji-82 is estimated to be as high as 98%. The Yingji-82 can be launched from airplanes, surface ships, submarines and land-based vehicles. Its export name is the C-802.

The Yingji-82 (C-802) anti-ship missile was derived from the Chinese YJ-8 (C-801) with extended range. The YJ-82 is externally similar to the YJ-8, and has the same solid-propellant rocket booster and guidance system as the YJ-8. The most distinctive difference on the YJ-82 is that it employs a turbojet with paraffin (kerosene)-based fuel to replace the original solid rocket engine. For this reason the fuselage was extended to accommodate the extra fuel. The maximum range of the missile has also been extended from the original 40 km (or 80 km for YJ-81/C-801A) to 120 km.

The YJ-82 is almost identical to the YJ-8 in appearance apart from a slightly longer fuselage and an air inlet for the turbojet engine. The missile has a slim body and ovoid nose. There are four front delta wings, four smaller control surfaces, and four large tail stabilising wings. The tail wings are mounted on the rocket booster and will be lost when the booster detaches from the missile body. The air inlet is located between the main fins under the missile body. The front and tail wings are folded when the missile is in the launcher.

When the missile is launched, the solid rocket propellant booster accelerates the speed of the missile to Mach 0.9 in a few seconds. After the booster burns out, it detaches from the missile body and the missile's turbojet engine starts working. Controlled by the inertial autopilot system and radio altimeter, the missile flies at a cruising speed of Mach 0.9, and the cruise altitude is reduced to 10–20 metres (depending on the sea state) from the original 20–30 metres of the C-801/YJ-81.

When entering the terminal phase of flight, the missile switches on its terminal guidance radar to search for the target. Once within a few kilometers of the target, the missile drops to 3–5 meters above sea level, about the same as a French Exocet missile. This altitude is slightly lower than the original 5–7 metres of the C-801/YJ-81. The missile may also maneuver during the terminal phase to make it a more difficult target for shipborne air defense systems. When approaching the target, the missile dives to hit the waterline of the ship to inflict maximum damage. At the 6th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2006, the manufacturer revealed that the "pop-up" approach and the checkpoint flight functions are being worked on.

2013年9月2日星期一

Tungsten Alloy Rod & FGM-148

Tungsten alloy rod has so many advantages, such as high density, high melting point, small volume, excellent hardness, superior wearing resistance, high ultimate tensile strength, high ductility, high temperature resistance, etc. Tungsten alloy rod is used for FGM-148 Jacelin.

The FGM-148 Javelin is a United States-made man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded to replace the Dragon antitank missile in US service.

Javelin is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance. The system takes a top-attack flight profile against armored vehicles (attacking the top armor, which is generally thinner), but can also take a direct-attack mode for use against buildings. This missile also has the ability to engage helicopters in the direct attack mode. It can reach a peak altitude of 150 m (500 ft) in top-attack mode and 60 m in direct-fire mode. It is equipped with an imaging infrared seeker. The tandem warhead is fitted with two shaped charges: a precursor warhead to detonate any explosive reactive armor and a primary warhead to penetrate base armor.

The missile is ejected from the launcher so that it reaches a safe distance from the operator before the main rocket motors ignite; a "soft launch arrangement". This makes it harder to identify the launcher; however, back-blast from the launch tube still poses a hazard to nearby personnel. Thanks to this "fire and forget" system, the firing team may move on as soon as the missile has been launched.

The missile system is most often carried by a two man team consisting of a gunner and an ammo bearer, although it can be fired with just one person if necessary. While the gunner aims and fires the missile, the ammo bearer scans for prospective targets, watches for threats such as enemy vehicles and troops, and ensures personnel and obstacles are clear of the missile's back blast.

2013年8月30日星期五

Spike Missile

Tungsten alloy rod has the advantage of high density,excellent hardness,superior high tensile strength.etc. Tungsten alloy rod can be used as warhead of Spike Missile.

Spike is a fourth generation man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile and anti-personnel missile with a tandem-charged HEAT warhead, developed and designed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and in service with a number of nations.

As well as engaging and destroying targets within the line-of-sight of the launcher ("fire-and-forget"), some variants of the missile are capable of making a top-attack profile through a "fire, observe and update" guidance method; the operator tracking the target, or switching to another target, optically through the trailing fiber-optic wire while the missile is climbing to altitude after launch. This is similar to the lofted trajectory flight profile of the US FGM-148 Javelin.

Spike is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance. The missile is equipped with an imaging infrared seeker.

The medium, long and extended range versions of the Spike also have the capability of "Fire, Observe and Update" operating mode. The missile is connected by a fiber-optical wire that is spooled out between the launch position and the missile. With this the operator can obtain a target if it is not in the line of sight of the operator at launch, switch targets in flight, or compensate for the movement of the target if the missile is not tracking the target for some reason. Hence, the missile can be fired speculatively for a target of opportunity, or to provide observation on the other side of an obstacle. The missile has a soft launch capability – the motor firing after the missile has left the launcher- which allows for the missile to be fired from confined spaces, which is a necessity in urban warfare.

The missile uses a tandem warhead – two shaped charges, a precursor warhead to detonate any explosive reactive armor and a primary warhead to penetrate the underlying armor. Currently, it is replacing aging second generation anti-tank missiles like the MILAN and M47 Dragon in the armies of the user nations.


2013年8月28日星期三

FIM-92 Stinger

Tungsten alloy rod has so many advantages, such as high density, high melting point, small volume, excellent hardness, superior wearing resistance, high ultimate tensile strength, high ductility, high temperature resistance, etc. The warhead of FIM-92 Stinger is made of tungsten alloy rod.

The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM), which can be adapted to fire from ground vehicles or helicopters (as an AAM), developed in the United States and entered into service in 1981. Used by the militaries of the United States and by 29 other countries, it is manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems and under license by EADS in Germany, with 70,000 missiles produced. It is classified as a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS).

Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive surface-to-air missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator, although officially it requires two. The FIM-92B missile can also be fired from the M-1097 Avenger and M6 Linebacker. The missile is also capable of being deployed from a Humvee Stinger rack, and can be used by paratroopers. A helicopter launched version exists called Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS).

Tungsten Alloy Ball & JDAM

Tungsten alloy ball is small in volume but very dense, which means the product can be used in various fields requiring small but heavy parts.
Tungsten alloy ball can be used for warhead of JDAM.

The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a guidance kit that converts unguided bombs, or "dumb bombs" into all-weather "smart" munitions. JDAM-equipped bombs are guided by an integrated inertial guidance system coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, giving them a published range of up to 15 nautical miles (28 km). JDAM-equipped bombs range from 500 pounds (227 kg) to 2,000 pounds (907 kg). When installed on a bomb, the JDAM kit is given a GBU (Guided Bomb Unit) nomenclature, superseding the Mark 80 or BLU (Bomb, Live Unit) nomenclature of the bomb to which it is attached.

The JDAM is not a stand-alone weapon, rather it is a "bolt-on" guidance package that converts unguided gravity bombs into Precision-Guided Munitions, or PGMs. The key components of the system consist of a tail section with aerodynamic control surfaces, a (body) strake kit, and a combined inertial guidance system and GPS guidance control unit.

The JDAM was meant to improve upon laser-guided bomb and imaging infrared technology, which can be hindered by bad ground and weather conditions. Laser seekers are now being fitted to some JDAMs.

From 1998 to 20 August 2013, Boeing delivered 250,000 JDAM kits, producing over 40 guidance kits per day.